Bibliography of Mantids and Phasmids
in North America

Albert, R. O. 1947. Another case of injury to the human eye by the walking stick, Anisomorpha (Phasmidae). Entomological News ?: 57-59.

Allred, M. L., B. P. Stark, and D. L. Lentz. 1986. Egg capsule morphology of Anisomorpha buprestoides (Phasmatoidea: Pseudophasmatidae). Entomological News, 97(4): 169-174.

Arnold, D. C. 1973. Walkingsticks (Orthoptera: Phasmatidae) of Oklahoma. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Sciences 53: 106-108.

Ball, E.D., et al. 1942. The grasshoppers and other orthoptera of Arizona. Arizona Agr. Exp. Sta. Techn. Bull. 93: 255-373.

Bartley, J.A. 1982. Movement patterns in adult male and female mantids (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure). Environ. Entomol. 11: 1108-1111.

Bartman, G. and P. D. Brock. 1995. Observations on the appearance and behaviour of species of the stick-insect genus Timema Scudder (Phasmida: Timematodea). Bull. Amateur Entomologist's Soc. 54: 197-203.

Beamer, Raymond H. 1932. The giant walking-stick (Megaphasma dentricus (Stal.)) found in Kansas. Journ. Kansas Entomological Society 5(1): 28.

Bedford, G.O. 1978. Biology and ecology of the Phasmatodea. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 23: 125-49.

Benjamin, D.M. 1952. Tree decadence and mortality in hardwood stands infested by the walkingstick. Proceedings of the N. Centr. Brit. Amer. Assoc. Econ. Entomol. 6: 78-80.

Berenbaum, M.R., and E. Miliczky. 1984. Mantids and milkweed bugs: efficacy of aposematic coloration against invertebrate predators. American Midland Naturalist 111(1): 64-68.

Blatchley, W.S. 1903. The orthoptera of Indiana. Author's Separates. 27th Annual Report of the Department of Geology and Natural Resources of Indiana, 1902. Indianapolis, IN.

Blatchley, W.S. 1920. Orthoptera of northeastern America, with especial reference to the faunas of Indiana and Florida. Indianapolis, IN: Nature Publishing.

Bowdish, T.I., and T.L. Bultman. 1993. Visual cues used by mantids in learning aversion to aposematically colored prey. American Midland Naturalist 129(2): 215-222.

Bradler, S. 1999. The vomer of Timema Scudder, 1895 (Insecta: Phasmatodea) and its significance for phasmatodean phylogeny. Courier Forsch.-Inst Senckenberg 215: 43-47.

Bradley, J.C., and B.S. Galil. 1977. The taxonomic arrangement of the Phasmatodea with keys to the subfamilies and tribes. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 79: 176-208.

Breland, O. 1941. Notes on the biology of Stagmomantis carolina. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 36: 170-177.

Breland, O..P. and J.W. Dobson. 1947. Specificity of mantid oothecae (Orthoptera: Mantidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 40: 557-575.

Bromley, S. 1932. Observations on the Chinese mantid Paratenodora sinensis. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 27: 196-201.

Buckout, W. A. 1892. The Walking-Stick—Diapheromera femorata Say. Rept. Penn. State Bd. Agric. p. 110-2.

Butler, H. 1914. An unusual occurrence of walkingstick. Journal of Economic Entomology 7: 299.

Cantrall, I.J. 1943. The ecology of the orthoptera and dermaptera of the George Reserve, MI. Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Misc. Pub. 54.

Caudell, A.N. 1903. The Phasmidae, walkings sticks of the United States. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 26: 863-886.

Caudell, A.N. 1904. Two Orthoptera hitherto unrecorded from the United States. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 27: 949-952

Caudell, A.N. 1905. Two interesting mantids from the U.S. Journal of the NY Ent. Soc. 13(2): 82-83.

Caudell, A.N. 1905. Aplopus mayeri, new species. Journ. New York Ent. Soc. 13(2): 83-85.

Caudell, A.N. 1906. On a collection of Orthoptera from southern Arizona, with descriptions of new species. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 28: 461-477.

Caudell, A. N. 1908. Notes on some Western Orthoptera: With the description of one new species. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 34: 71-81.

Caudell, A. N. 1909. Notes on Orthoptera. Canadian Entomologist 43: 156.

Caudell, A. N. 1909. Miscellaneous notes on Orthoptera. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 11: 111-114.

Caudell, A.N., and M. Hebard. 1912. Fixation of the single type (lectotypic) specimens of species of American Orthoptera. Division II. The species of North American Orthoptera described by Andrew Nelson Caudell. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia LXIV (II): 157-168.

Clark, J. T.  1979.  A key to the eggs of stick and leaf insects (Phasmida).  Systematic Entomology. 4(4):325-331.

Conklin, E. H. 1877. Walking-Sticks or Specters becoming injurious. Am. Agriculturist, Aug. Cumberland Co., PA. Reprint in: Ann. Rept. U.S. Com. Agric. 1878, Wash.

Davis, W.T. 1918. Introduction of palaearctic praying mantids into the North Atlantic states. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 13: 73-76.

Davis, W. T. 1923. A new walking-stick insect from eastern North America. Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 31: 52-55.

Didlake, M. 1926. Observations on the life histories of two species of praying mantis. Ent. News 37: 169-174.

Eisenberg, R.M., and L.E. Hurd. 1977. An ecological study of the emergence characteristics for egg cases of the Chinese mantis (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure). American Midland Naturalist 97: 478-482.

Eisenberg, R.M., et al. 1981. Ecological consequences of food limitation for adult mantids (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure). American Midland Naturalist 106: 204-218.

Eisenberg, R.M., et al. 1992. Adult dispersal of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis. Environ. Entomol. 21: 350-353.

Eisner, T. 1965. Defensive spray of a phasmid insect. Science 148: 966-968.

Felt, E. P. 1898. A Walking-Stick. Country Gentleman. p. 647.

Ferrisburg, R.E.R. 1874. Walking-Sticks or Specters becoming injurious in Vermont. Rural New Yorker, Nov. 7. Reprinted in: Ann. Rept. U. S. Com. Agric. 1878, Wash.

Fox, H. 1914. Notes on orthoptera and orthopteran habitats in the vicinity of Lafayette, IN. Indiana Acad. Sci., Proceedings 24: 287-321.

Fox, H. 1914. Data on the orthopteran faunistic of Eastern Pennsylvania and Southern New Jersey. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia 66: 441-534.

Fox, H. 1935. Tenodera angustipennis established in southern New Jersey. Ent. News 46: 91-93.

Giglio-Tos, E. Mantidae. Das Tierreich, Lief 50.

Graham, S.A. 1937. The walkingstick as a frorest defoliator. Univ. Mich. School of Forestry and Conservation Circular 3.

Gurney, A.B. 1951. Praying mantids of the United States, native and introduced. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution - 1950. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO.

Gustafson, J. F. 1966. Biological observations on Timema californica (Phasmoidea: Phasmidae). Annuals of the Ent. Soc. of America. 59: 59-61.

Hebard, M. 1925. The orthoptera of South Dakota. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. Proc. 77: 43.

Hebard, M. 1920. The genus Timema Scudder, with the description of a new species (Orthoptera, Phasmidae, Timeminae). Ent. News, 31: 127-132.

Hebard, M. 1931. The races of Diapheromera veliei (Orthoptera, Phasmidae, Heteronemiinae). Ent. News 42: 65-67.

Hebard, M. 1931. The Orthoptera of Kansas. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia 83: 119-227.

Hebard, M. 1932. The orthoptera of Minnesota. Minn. Agri. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 85: 21.

Hebard, M. 1934. The dermaptera and orthoptera of Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 20: 160-162.

Hebard, M. 1934. Studies in Orthoptera which occur in North America north of the Mexican boundary. Trans. American Ent. Soc. 60: 281-293.

Hebard, M. 1935. Orthoptera of the upper Rio Grande valley and the adjacent mountains in Northern Mexico. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia 87: 45-82.

Hebard, M. 1936. Orthoptera of North Dakota. ND Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 284: 27.

Hebard, M. 1937. Studies in Orthoptera which occur in North America, north of the Mexican boundary. VII. Notes and a new species of Timema, and a new race of Diapheromera velii (Phasmida). Trans. American Ent. Soc. 63: 347-354.

Hebard, M. 1937. Where and when to find the orthoptera of Pennsylvania. Ent. News. 48: 219-225.

Hebard, M. 1943. The dermaptera and orthopterous families Blattidae, Mantidae, and Phasmidae of Texas. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 68: 289, 304-305.

Helfer, J.R. 1987. How to know the grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches and their allies. Dover edition. NY: Dover Pub.

Henry, L. M. 1937. Biological notes on Timema californica Scudder. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 13(3): 137-141.

Hetrick, L. A. 1949. Field notes on a colour variant of the two-striped Walkingstick, Anisomorpha buprestoides (Stoll). Florida Entomologist 32(2): 74-77.

Hettrick, L. A. 1949. The oviposition of the two-striped walkingstick Anisomorpha buprestoides (Stoll). (Orthoptera, Phasmidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 51(3): 103-104.

Hurd, L.E., et al. 1978. Effects of experimentally manipulated density on field populations of the Chinese Mantis (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure). American Midland Naturalist 99(1): 58-64.

Hurd, L.E., and R.M. Eisenberg. 1990. Experimentally synchronized phenology and interspecific competition in mantids. American Midland Naturalist 124(2): 390-394.

Hutchings, C.B. 1920. Walkingsticks. Can. Entomol. 52: 241-245.

Johnson, C. W. 1896. The thick-thighed Walking-Stick (Diapheromera femorata Say.) 2d Ann. Rept. Penn. Dept. Agric.

Jones, F. 1933. Another oriental mantis well established in the United States. Ent. News 44: 1-3.

Judd, W.W. 1950. Further records of the occurrence of the European praying mantis (M. religiosa) in southern Ontario. Ent. News 61: 205-207.

Knauer, K.H. 1966. Seasonal life history and behavior of the northern walkingstick. Ms. Thesis, unpublished. Lafayette, IN: Purdue Univ.

Knauer, K.H. 1969. Quantitative ecology of the walkingstick, Diapheromera femorata (Say) (Orthoptera: Phasmidae). Ph.D. Thesis, unpublished. Lafayette, IN: Purdue Univ.

Lawrence, S.E. 1992. Sexual cannibalism in the praying mantid, Mantis reliogiosa: a field study. Animal Behavior 43: 569-583.

Littig, K. S. 1942. External anatomy of the Florida walking stick Anisomorpha buprestroides Stoll. Florida Ent. XXV(3): 33-41.

Lugger, O. 1897. The Orthoptera of Minnesota. Bull. 55, Minn. Agric. Exp. Sta.

Matsura, T., et al. 1975. Ecological studies of the mantid, Paratenodera angustipennis I. Evaluation of the feeding condition in natural habitats. Res. Popul. Ecol. 17: 64-76.

MacKinnon, J. 1970. Indications of territoriality in mantids. Z. Tierpsychol 27: 150-5.

McAtee, W.L., and A.N. Caudell. 1917. First list of the dermaptera and orthoptera of Plummer's Island, MD. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 19: 104.

Millron, H. E. 1950. The identity of a cleptid egg parasite of the common walking stick, Diapheromera femorata Say (Hymenoptera: Cleptidae). Proc. of the Ent. Soc. Washington 52(1): 47.

Mook, L.J., and D.M. Davies. 1966. The European praying mantis (Mantis religiosa L.) as a predator of the red-legged grasshopper (Melanoplus femurrubrum DeGreer). Can. Entomol. 98: 913-918.

Moran, M.D., and L.E. Hurd. 1994. Environmentally determined male-biased sex ration in a praying mantid. American Midland Naturalist 132(1): 205-208.

Nutting, W.L. 1950. The European mantis in New England. Psyche 57: 28.

Otte, D. 1978. The primary types of Orthoptera (Saltatoria, Mantodea, Phasmatodea and Blattodea) at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia 130: 26-87.

Paradise, C.J., and N.E. Stamp. 1991. Abundant prey can alleviate previous adverse effects on growth of juvenile praying mantids (Orthoptera: Mantidae). Ann. Entomological Society of America 84(4): 396-406.

Rathet, I.H., and L.E. Hurd. 1983. Ecological relationships of three co-occurring mantids, Tenodera sinensis (Saussure), T. angustipennis (Saussure), and Mantis religiosa (Linnaeus). American Midland Naturalist 110(2): 240-248.

Rau, P., and N. Rau. 1913. The biology of Stagmomantis carolina. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 22: 1-58.

Rehn, J.A.G. 1902. Notes on some Southern Californian Orthoptera. Canadian Entomologist 34: 141-142.

Rehn, J.A.G. 1903. Notes and remarks on North American Blattidae, Mantidae and Phasmidae, with a catalogue of the Forficulidae, Blattidae, Mantidae and Phasmidae recorded from Texas. Ent. News 14: 325-331.

Rehn, J.A.G. 1903. A catalogue of Texan Forficulidae, Blattidae, Mantidae, and Phasmidae. Entomol. News 14: 331.

Rehn, J.A.G. 1904. Studies in the orthopterous family Phasmidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1904: 38-107.

Rehn, J.A.G. 1905. Invertebrata Pacifica - Orthoptera. Second report on Pacific slope Orthoptera. Vol. 1. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 72-74.

Rehn, J.A.G. 1907. Notes on the Orthoptera from Southern Arizona, with descriptions of new species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia 59: 24-81.

Rehn, J.A.G. 1947. The removal of the mantid genus Callimantis from the North American fauna. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 49: 163-164.

Rehn, J. A. G. and H. J. Grant. 1961. A monograph of the Orthoptera of North America (north of Mexico). I. Monographs of the Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia 12: 1-257.

Rehn, J. A. G. and M. Hebard. 1906. A contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Montana, Yellowstone Park, Utah and Colorado. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia 58: 358-418.

Rehn, J. A. G. and M. Hebard. 1907. Orthoptera from Northern Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia 59: 279-395.

Rehn, J. A. G. and M. Hebard. 1909. An Orthopterological reconnoissance of the Southwestern United States. Part III: California and Nevada. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia 61: 409-483.

Rehn, J. A. G. and M. Hebard. 1909. An Orthopterological reconnoissance of the south western United States. Part II: New Mexico and Western Texas. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia 61: 119-130.

Rehn, J. A. G. and M. Hebard. 1909. An Orthopterological reconnoissance of the Southwestern United States. Part II: New Mexico and Western Texas. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia 61: 111-175.

Rehn, J.A.G., and M. Hebard. 1910. Records of Georgia and Florida Orthoptera. Acad. Natur. Sci. Philad. Proc. 62: 587.

Rehn, J.A.G., and M. Hebard. 1912. On the Orthoptera found on the Florida Keys and in extreme southern Florida. I. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. LXIV(II): 235-276.

Rehn, J.A.G., and M. Hebard. 1914. On the Orthoptera found on the Florida Keys and in extreme southern Florida. II. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. LXVI(II): 373-412.

Rehn, J.A.G., and M. Hebard. 1916. Studies in Dermaptera and orthoptera of the coastal plain and piedmont region of the southeastern U.S. Acad. Natur. Sci. Philad. Proc. 68: 124-125.

Rentz, D. C. 1963. Notes on a collection of Timema boharti Tinkham. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 39: 74.

Rentz, D. C. 1965. Type specimens of Orthoptera in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences to 1965. Proc. Californian Acad. of Sciences 33(3): 59-64.

Rentz, D.C.F. 1978. A new parthenogenetic Timema from California. Pan. Pac. Ent. 54: 173-177.

Rentz, D. C. F. and D. B. Weissmann. 1981. Faunal affinities, systematics& bionomics of the Orthoptera of the California Channel Islands. Univ. Calif. Publs. Ent. 94: 123+.

Riley, C.V. 1869. Habits of Spectrum [Diapheromera] femorata Say. Amer. Ent. II: 96.

Riley, C.V. 1879. The Thick-thighed walkingstick. in: Report Entomol. U.S. Dept. Agr. pp. 241-245.

Roberts, R. 1937. Biology of the minor mantid Litaneutria minor. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 30: 111-121.

Roberts, R. 1937. Biology of the bordered mantid Stagmomantis limbata. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 30: 96-108.

Sandoval, C. P. 1994. Differential visual predation on morphs of Timema cristinae (Phasmatodea: Timemidae) and its consequence for host range. Biol. Journal of the Linnean Society 52: 341-356.

Sandoval, C. P. & Vickery, V. R. 1996. Timema douglasi (Phasmatoptera: Timematodea), a new parthenogenetic species from Southwestern Oregon and Northern California, with notes on other species. Canadian Entomologist 128(1): 79-84.

Saussure, H. de 1859. Orthoptera Nova Americana (Diagnosis praeliminares). Revue et magazin de Zoologie (2)11: 201-212.

Saussure, H. de 1859. Orthoptera Nova Americana. (Diagnosis praeliminares). Revue et magazin de Zoologie (2)11: 59-63.

Saussure, H. de 1861. Orthoptera Nova Americana (Diagnosis praeliminares). Revue et magazin de Zoologie (2)13: 126-128

Scudder, S.H. 1876. Odoriferous glands in Phasmidae. Psyche 1 (22): 137-140.

Scudder, S.H. 1895. Summary of the U.S. Phasmidae. Canadian Ent. XXVII(2): 29-30.

Scudder, S.H. 1897. Diapheromera femorata. Psyche VIII: 30-1.

Scudder, S. H. 1899. Catalogue of the Orthoptera of the United States and Canada. Proc. Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci. 8: 1-101.

Scudder, S.H. 1901. The species of Diapheromera found in the U.S. and Canada. Psyche 9: 187-189.

Scudder, S.H., and T.D.A. Cockerall. 1902. A first list of the orthoptera of New Mexico. Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. 9: 1-60.

Sellick, J. T. C. 1994. Phasmida (Stick insect) eggs from the Eocene of Oregon. Palaeontology 37(4): 913-921

Severin, Henry H. P., Ph. D. 1910. The effect of moisture and dryness on the emergence from the egg of the walking-stick, Diapheromera femorata Say. Journal of Economic Entomology 3: 479-481.

Severin, Henry H. P., Ph. D. 1911. The life-history of the walking-stick, Diapheromera femorata Say. Journal of Economic Entomology 4: 307-320.

Sivinski, J. 1983. Predation and sperm competition in the evolution of coupling durations, particularly in the stick insect Diapheromera veliei. In: Gwynne, D. T. and G. K. Morris, eds. Orthoptera mating systems: Sexual competition in a diverse group of insects. Wesview Press, Colorado, USA.

Slingerland, M.V. 1900. The common European praying mantis, a new beneficial insect in America. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. (185): 35-47.

Somes, M. P. 1916. The Phasmidae of Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri (Orth. ). Ent. News 27: 269-271.

Stockard, C.R. 1908. Habits, reactions, and mating instincts of the “walking stick,” Aplopus mayeri. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 103, II (II): 43-59.

Stockard, C.R. 1909. Inheritance in the Walking-Stick, Aplopus mayeri. Biol. Bull. XVI, p. 239-245.

Stewart, M.A. 1937. Phasmid injury to the human eye. Canadian Ent. LXIX (4): 84-86.

Strohecker, H. F. 1936. A new Timema from California (Orthoptera: Phasmidae). Ent. News 47: 267-268.

Strohecker, H. F. 1951. Three new species of North American Orthoptera. Ann. Ent. Soc. America 44(2): 169-172.

Strohecker, H. F. 1966. New Timema from Nevada and Arizona (Phasmodea: Timemidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 42(1): 25-26.

Thierolf, W.R. 1928. The economic importance of Paratenodera sinensis. Ent. News 39: 112-116, 140-145.

Tinkham, E. R. 1942. A new californian species of Timema (Phasmodea: Timemidae) with zoogeographical notes. Bull. S. Californian Acad. Sciences 41: 72-79, pl. 14.

Tinkham, E.R. 1948. Faunistic and ecological studies on the orthoptera of the Big Bend region of Trans-Pecos Texas, with especial reference to the Orthopteran zones and faunas of midwestern North America. Amer. Midland Naturalist 40: 521-663.

Vickery, V.R. 1993. Revision of Timema Scudder (Phasmatoptera: Timematodea) including three new species. Canadian Entomologist 125(4): 657-692.

Vickery, V. R. 1994. Additional information on Timema species. Canadian Entomologist 126(2):443. 

Vickery, V. R. 1997. Two new species in the genus Diapheromera (Phasmatoptera: Necroscioidea: Heteronemiidae: Heteronemiinae) from Baja California, Mexico. Can. Ent. 129(6): 1141-1149.

Vickery, V. R. and C. P. Sandoval. 1997. Timema bartmani (Phasmatoptera: Timematodea: Timematidae), a new species from Southern California. Can. Ent. 129(5): 933-936.

Walsh, B.D., and C.V. Riley. 1868. The Stick-bug. Amer. Ent. I: 58.

Wilkins, O.P., and O.P. Breland. 1951. Notes on the giant walking stick, Megaphasma deticrus (Stål) (Orthoptera: Phasmatidae). Tx. J. Sci. 3: 305-310.

Zack, S. 1978. Description of the behavior of praying mantids with particular reference to grooming. Behav. Processes 3: 97-105.




NA Mantids

NA Phasmids