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Colubrids

North American Ratsnakes Bibliography (Elaphe, Bogertophis, Senticolis)

Albright, R.G. & E.M. Nelson. 1959. Cranial kinetics of the generalized colubrid snake Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata. 1. Descriptive morphology. Journal of Morphology 105: 193-240.

Albright, R.G. & E.M. Nelson. 1959. Cranial kinetics of the generalized colubrid snake Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata. 2. Functional morphology. Journal of Morphology 105: 241-292.

Aldrich, J.W., and C.G. Endicott. 1984. Black rat snake predation on giant Canada goose eggs. Wildlife Society Bulletin 12: 263-264.

Allen, E.R. & W.T. Neill. 1950. The life history of the Everglades rat snake, Elaphe obsoleta rossalleni. Herpetologica 6(5): 109-112.

Altamirano Alvarez, T., F. Mendoza Quijano, Y. Marmolejo Santillán and R. García Collazo. 1993. Senticolis triaspis intermedius (Boettger), Colubridae. Un nuevo registro para el Stado de Hidalgo, México; con comentarios en su distribución. Boletín de la Sociedad Herpetológica Mexicana 5(1):6-8.

Anderson, R.E. 1995. Geographic distribution: Elaphe guttata emoryi. Herpetological Review 26(4): 210.

Baeyens, D.A., C.T. McAllister, & L.F. Morgans. 1978. Some physiological and morphological adaptations for underwater survival in Natrix rhombifera and Elaphe obsoleta. Proc. Arkansas Acad. Sci. 32: 18-21.

Baeyens, D.A., M.W. Patterson, & C.T. McAllister. 1980. A comparative physiological study of diving in three species of Nerodia and Elaphe obsoleta. Journal of Herpetology 14(1): 65-70.

Baker, R.J., J.J. Bull, and G.A. Mengden. 1971. Chromosomes of Elaphe subocularis (Reptilia: Serpentes), with a description of an in vivo technique for preparation of snake chromosomes. Experientia 27(10): 1228-1229.

Bakker, J. 1987. Problematic oviposition in a specimen of Elaphe guttata (red phase albino). Litteratura Serpentium 7(5): 203-205.

Barbour, T., and A.F. Carr, Jr. 1940. Notes on Elaphe and a new species. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 8: 337-342.

Barnard, S.M., T.G. Hollinger, & T.A. Romaine. 1979. Growth and food consumption in the corn snake, Elaphe guttata guttata (Serpentes: Colubridae). Copeia 1979(4): 739-741.

Barr, T.C., Jr., & R.M. Norton. 1965. Predation on cave bats by the pilot snake. Journal of Mammalogy 46: 672.

Barthelme, S. 1967. Notes on the Texas ratsnake, Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri, in east Texas. Bulletin of the Philadelphia Herpetological Society 15: 36.

Bartz, H. 1989. Keeping and breeding Elaphe subocularis in the terrarium. Litteratura Serpentium 9(2): 80-82.

Bechtel, E. 1980. Geographic distribution of two color mutants of the corn snake, Elaphe guttata guttata. Herpetological Review 11(2): 39-40.

Bechtel, H.B. & E. Bechtel. 1958. Reproduction in captive corn snakes, Elaphe guttata guttata. Copeia 1958(2): 148-149.

Bechtel, H.B. & E. Bechtel. 1962. Heredity of pattern mutation in the corn snake, Elaphe g. guttata, demonstrated in captive breedings. Copeia 1978(4): 719-721.

Bechtel, H.B. & E. Bechtel. 1981. Albinism in the snake, Elaphe obsoleta. Journal of Herpetology 15(4): 397-402.

Bechtel, H.B. & E. Bechtel. 1985. Genetics of color mutations in the snake, Elaphe obsoleta. Journal of Heredity 76: 7-11.

Bechtel, H.B. & E. Bechtel. 1991. Scaleless snakes and breeding report of scaleless Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri. Herpetological Review 22(1): 12-14.

Bell, E.L. 1957. The food habits of the pilot black snake Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta with observations on a captive specimen. Mengel Natur. (2): 19-22.

Bell, E.L. 1989. Unique feeding habit of a captive black rat snake, Elaphe o. obsoleta. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 25(4): 155-156.

Bennetts, R.E., and E.L. Caton. 1988. An observed incidence of rat snake predation of snail kite (Rosrhamus sociabilis) chicks in Florida. Florida Field Naturalist 16: 14-16.

Blair, K., et al. 1993. Geographic distribution: Elaphe guttata emoryi. Herpetological Review 24(2): 67.

Blake, H. 1993. The Texas rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri). Vivarium 4(6): 15-18.

Blem, C.R. 1979. Predation of black rat snake on a bank swallow colony. Wilson Bulletin 91(1): 135-137.

Brady, M.K. 1932. A new snake from Florida. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 45: 5-7.

Brady, M.K. 1933. The third specimen of Elaphe rosacea (Cope). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 46: 153-154.

Brand, L. 1982. Care and breeding of the yellow rat snake. Litteratura Serpentium 2(3): 102-109.

Brecke, B.J., J.B. Murphy, & W.Seifert. 1976. An inventory of reproduction and social behavior in captive Baird's ratsnakes, Elaphe obsoleta bairdi (Yarrow). Herpetologica 32(4): 389-395.

Breckenridge, W.J. 1944. The pilot black snake of Minnesota. Copeia 1944(1): 64.

Bremmer, L. 1985. Management of the black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) at St. Lawrence Islands National Park. Newsl. Bull. Canadian Soc. Env. Biol. 42(4): 22-23.

Brothers, D.R. 1994. Elaphe obsoleta (Rat Snake) - Reproduction. Herpetological Review 25(3): 124.

Brown, L.E., and J.R. Brown. 1975. Evidence of climbing ability by western fox snakes (Elaphe vulpina vulpina). Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 11(4): 179.

Brown, L.E., and K.A. Brown. 1995. Fox snake winter activity in central Illinois. Herpetological Review 26(3): 134-135.

Burkett, D., et al. 1998. Geographic distribution: Elaphe emoryi (Great Plains Rat Snake). Herpetological Review 29(2): 112.

Bury, R.B. 1983. Geographic distribution: Elaphe guttata emoryi (Great Plains Rat Snake). Herpetological Review 14(4): 123.

Callard, I.P., & J. H. Leathem. 1967. Some aspects of oviduct biochemistry in the snakes Natrix sipedon pictiventris, Coluber c. constrictor and Elaphe q. quadrivittata. Proc. Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences 40: 59-62.

Campbell, H.W. 1970. Prey selection in naive Elaphe obsoleta (Squamata: Serpentes) - A reappraisal. Psychon. Sci. 21: 300-301.

Campbell, J.A. 1972. Reproduction in captive Trans-Pecos ratsnakes, Elaphe subocularis. Herpetological Review 4(4): 129-130.

Carpenter, C.C. 1947. Copulation of the fox snake. Copeia 1947(4): 275.

Chang, P., J. Balling, & R. Lister. 1971. Karyotype of the pilot black snake, Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta (Say). Mammal Chromosome Newsletter 12: 9.

Chapman, E.M. 1965. Notes on an albino corn snake, Elaphe guttata guttata. Bulletin of the New York Herpetological Society 2(3): 14.

Chenoweth, W.L. 1949. Elaphe guttata in south-central Kentucky. Herpetologica 5(2): 21-22.

Chiszar, D., J.D. Drew, & H.M. Smith. 1992. A range extension of the great plains rat snake in eastern Colorado. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 27(8): 165.

Clark, Jr., D.R. and G.W. Pendleton. 1995. Texas rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) eggs and hatchlings from a communal nest. The Southwestern Naturalist 40(2):203-207.

Clark, H. 1953. Eggs, egg-laying and incubation of the snake Elaphe emoryi (Baird and Girard). Copeia 1953(2): 90-92.

Clay, W.M. 1952. An albino snake (Elaphe obsoleta). Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Sciences 13(4): 285-286.

Cliburn, J.W. 1977. Elaphe obsoleta spiloides (Grey Rat Snake) in aquatic habitats. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences 21: 89-90.

Cochran, P.A. 1988. Geographic distribution: Elaphe vulpina. Herpetological Review 19(1): 20.

Cochran, P.A. 1990. Geographic distribution: Elaphe vulpina. Herpetological Review 21(2): 41.

Cohen, H.J. 1978. An observation of double clutch production by Elaphe obsoleta in captivity. Herpetological Review 9(4): 140-141.

Collins, J.T. 1970. The corn snake, Elaphe guttata guttata (Linnaeus) in Kentucky. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Sciences 31(1/2): 49-50.

Conant, R. 1940. A new subspecies of the fox snake, Elaphe vulpina (Baird and Girard). Herpetologica 2(1): 1-14.

Conant, R. 1948. Regeneration of clipped subcaudal scales in a pilot black snake. Nat. Hist. Misc. (13): 1-2.

Cox, T.M. 1986. More on the bird-eating activities of the black rat snake, Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta (Say). Notes from NOAH (Northern Ohio Association of Herpetologists) 14(1): 18.

Cranston, T. 1989. Natural History and captive husbandry of the western green rat snake. Vivarium 2(1): 8-11, 23.

Cranston, T. 1989. Captive propagation and husbandry of the western green rat snake (Senticolis triaspis intermedia): the untold story. In: R.L. Gowen. Captive propagation and husbandry of reptiles and amphibians. Northern California Herp. Soc. (5): 81-85.

Cranston, T. 1993. The natural history and captive husbandry of the Trans-Pecos rat snake (Bogertophis subocularis). Vivarium 4(5): 18-21.

Crawford, F.T., & C.W. Bartlett. 1966. Runway behavior of the gray rat snake with food and water reinforcement. Psychon. Sci. 4: 99-100.

Crispens, C.G., Jr. and K.R. Marion. 1975. Algal infection in a corn snake (Elaphe guttata guttata). Laboratory Animal Science 25(6):788-789.

Davis, W.T. 1912. The corn snake in New Jersey. Science N.S. 35: 416-417.

Degenhardt, W.G., & P.B. Degenhardt. 1965. The host-parasite relationship between Elaphe subocularis (Reptilia: Colubridae) and Aponomma elaphensis (Acarina: Ixodidae). Southwestern Naturalist 10(3): 167-178.

Dial, B.E. 1965. Pattern and coloration in juveniles of two west Texas Elaphe. Herpetologica 21(1): 75-78.

Dloogatch, M. 1973. Hatching of corn snake eggs in captivity. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 8(3/4): 32-33.

Donald, J.A.& H.B. Lillywhite. 1988. Adrenergic innervation of the large arteries and veins of the semi-arboreal rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. Journal of Morphology 198: 25-31.

Donald, J.A., J.E. O'Shea, & H.B. Lillywhite. 1990. Neural regulation of the pulmonary vasculature in a semi-arboreal snake, Elaphe obsoleta. Journal of Comparative Physiology, Series B 159: 677-685.

Donald, J. A., J. E. O'Shea, and H. B. Lillywhite. 1990. Somatostatin and innervation of the heart of the snake Elaphe obsoleta. Am. J. Physiol. 258:R1001-R1007.

Dow, J.C., & T.D. Schwaner. 1990. Geographic distribution: Elaphe guttata (corn snake). Herpetological Review 21(4): 97.

Dowling, H.G. 1952. A taxonomic study of the ratsnakes, genus Elaphe Fitzinger. 4. A check list to the American forms. Occasional Papers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (541): 1-11.

Dowling, H.G. 1957. A taxonomic study of the ratsnakes, genus Elaphe Fitzinger. 5. The rosaliae section. Occasional Papers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (583): 1-22.

Dowling, H.G. 1960. A taxonomic study of the ratsnakes, genus Elaphe Fitzinger. 7. The triaspis section. Zoologica 45: 53-80.

Dowling, H.G., & I. Fries. 1987. A taxonomic study of the ratsnakes. 8. A proposed new genus for Elaphe triaspis (Cope). Herpetologica 43(2): 200-207.

Dowling, H.G., & R.M. Price. 1988. A proposed new genus for Elaphe subocularis and Elaphe rosaliae. The Snake 20(1): 52-63.

Durner, G.M., and J.E. Gates. 1993. Spatial ecology of black rat snakes on Remington Farms, Maryland. Journal of Wildlife Management 57(4): 812-826.

Easterla, D.A. 1967. Black rat snake preys upon gray myotis and winter observations of red bats. American Midland Naturalist 77: 527-528.

Eerden, H. van der. 1985. Breeding Elaphe guttata guttata in the terrarium. Litteratura Serpentium 5(5): 199-202.

Eerden, J.L.A. van der. 1985. Successful breeding of Texas rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri). Litteratura Serpentium 5(4): 163-165.

Enge, K.M. 1986. Life history notes: Elaphe guttata guttata (corn snake) - Reproduction. Herpetological Review 17(1): 22.

Estes, W. 1980. The removal of amniotic fluid as a method of assisting egg expulsion in an egg bound corn snake (Elaphe guttata). Bulletin of the Philadelphia Herp. Society 28: 7-9.

Faassen, T.J.M. 1983. Breeding results: Elaphe obsoleta rossalleni (2x). Litteratura Serpentium 3(6): 216-217.

Fendley, T.T. 1980. Incubating wood duck and hooded merganser hens killed by black rat snakes. Wilson Bulletin 92(4): 526-527.

Fitch, H.S. 1963. Natural history of the black rat snake (Elaphe o. obsoleta) in Kansas. Copeia 1963(4): 649-658.

Ford, N.B. 1974. Growth and food consumption in the yellow rat snake, Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata. Herpetologica 30(1): 102-104.

Forks, T.P., & J.E. Forks. 1982. Defensive display of the Texas rat snake, Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 17(4): 100.

Freed, P.S. 1989. An amelanistic Texas ratsnake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri). Herpetopathologia 1(1): 125.

Funk, R.S. 1962. On the reproduction of Elaphe g. guttata (Linnaeus). Herpetologica 18(1): 66.

Garratt, C.M., & C.W. Painter. 1992. Senticolis triaspis intermedia. Herpetological Review 23(4): 124.

Gillingham, J.C. 1974. Reproductive behavior of the western fox snake, Elaphe v. vulpina. Herpetologica 30(3): 309-313.

Gillingham, J.C. 1976. Reproductive behavior of the ratsnakes of eastern North America, genus Elaphe. Abstract. Herpetological Review 7(2): 84.

Gillingham, J.C. 1977. Further analysis of the reproductive behavior in the western fox snake, Elaphe vulpina vulpina. Herpetologica 33(3): 349-353.

Gillingham, J.C. 1979. Reproductive behavior of the rat snakes of eastern North America, genus Elaphe. Copeia 1979(2): 319-331.

Gillingham, J.C. 1980. Communication and combat behavior of the black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta). Herpetologica 36(2): 120-127.

Goodrich, M. 1978. An albino black snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) from Illinois. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 13(2): 46-48.

Greenwald, O.E., & M.E. Kanter. 1979. The effects of temperature and behavioral thermoregulation on digestive efficiency and rate in corn snakes (Elaphe guttata guttata). Physiol. Zool. 52(3): 398-408.

Grimes, S. A. 1936. Great horned owl and common black snake in mortal combat. Fla. Nat. 9:77-78.

Grogan, W.L., Jr. 1971. The first record of the corn snake, Elaphe guttata guttata, from West Virginia. Bulletin of the Maryland Herp. Soc. 7(4): 95-96.

Grogan, W.L., Jr., & J.J. White, Jr. 1973. An additional corn snake, Elaphe guttata guttata, from western Maryland. Bulletin of the Maryland Herp. Soc. 9(2): 33-34.

Groves, F. 1957. Eggs and young of the corn snake in Maryland. Herpetologica 13(1): 79-80.

Groves, J.D. 1966. Notes on a severed black rat snake, Elaphe o. obsoleta. Bulletin of the Maryland Herp. Society 2(3): 9.

Groves, J.D. 1967. Notes on albinism in Elaphe g. guttata. Bulletin of the Maryland Herp. Soc. 3(2): 26-28.

Haluska, F., & P. Alberch. 1983. The cranial development of Elaphe obsoleta (Ophidia, Colubridae). Journal of Morphology 178: 37-55.

Harper, F. 1935. Eggs and young of the pilot black snake and fox snake. American Midland Naturalist 16: 932-935.

Hart, S., & S. Manchester. Geographic distribution: Elaphe guttata emoryi (Great Plains Rat Snake). Herpetological Review 24(4): 156.

Hensley, R.C., and K.G. Smith. 1986. Eastern bluebird responses to nocturnal black rat snake predation. Wilson Bulletin 98: 602-603.

Heijnen, G. 1986. Breeding results: Elaphe obsoleta rossalleni, Everglades rat snake. Litteratura Serpentium 6(5): 203.

Hillis, D.M. 1974. A note on cannibalism in corn snakes, Elaphe guttata guttata. Bulletin of the Maryland Herp. Soc. 10(1): 31-32.

Hingley, K.J. 1988. The maintenance and reproduction of the western fox snake, Elaphe vulpina vulpina, in captivity. Litteratura Serpentium 8(3): 111-122.

Hirschkorn, D. 1986. Breeding results: Elaphe obsoleta deckerti, Deckert's rat snake. Litteratura Serpentium 6(4): 157.

Holman, J.A. 1960. Reproduction in a pair of corn snakes, Elaphe guttata guttata. Copeia 1960(3): 239.

Holtzman, D.A., G.A. Ten Eyck, & D. Begun. 1989. Artificial hibernation of garter (Thamnophis sp.) and corn (Elaphe guttata guttata) snakes. Herpetological Review 20(3): 67-69.

Holycross, A. 1999. Geographic distribution: Senticolis triaspis (Green Rat Snake). Herpetological Review 30(2): 114.

Honour, S.M., M. Ayroud, and C. Wheler. 1993. Metastatic chondrosarcoma and subcutaneous granulomas in a grey rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta). Canadian Vet. Journal 34(4): 238-240.

Hunsaker, D. 1965. The ratsnake Elaphe rosaliae in Baja California. Herpetologica 21(1): 71-72.

Ippoliti, S. 1980. Cannibalism in a corn snake hatchling (Elaphe guttata). Bulletin of the Philadelphia Herp Soc. 28: 14.

Irwin, K.J., L. Miller, & T.W. Taggart. 1992. Geographic distribution: Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri (Texas Rat Snake). Herpetological Review 23(1): 27.

Jackson, J.A. 1970. Predation of a black rat snake on yellow-shafted flicker nestlings. Wilson Bulletin 82: 329-330.

Jackson, J.A. 1974. Gray rat snake versus red-cockaded woodpeckers: predator-prey adaptations. The Auk 91(2): 342-347.

Jackson, J.A. 1976. Relative climbing tendencies of gray (Elaphe obsoleta spiloides) and black rat snake (E. o. obsoleta). Herpetologica 32(4): 359-361.

Jackson, J.A. 1977. Notes on the behavior of the grey rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta spiloides). Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences 22: 94-96.

Jackson, J.A. 1978. Predation by a grey rat snake on red-cockaded woodpecker nestlings. Birdbanding 49(2): 187-188.

Jackson, J.A. 1997. Geographic distribution: Elaphe obsoleta spiloides. Herpetological Review 28(2): 97.

Jackson, J.A. & O.H. Dakin. 1982. An encounter between a nesting barn owl and a grey rat snake. Raptor Research 16(2): 60-61.

Jackson, J.F. 1961. Simultaneous constriction habit in Elaphe obsoleta spiloides. Herpetologica 17(1): 67-68.

Jacob, J.S. & H.S. McDonald. 1975. Temperature preference and electrocardiography of Elaphe obsoleta (Serpentes). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 52 A: 591-594.

Jayne, B.C. 1985. Swimming in constricting (Elaphe g. guttata) and nonconstricting (Nerodia fasciata pictiventris) Colubrid snakes. Copeia 1985(1): 195-208.

Jayne, B.C. 1988. Muscular mechanisms of snake locomotion: An electromyographic study of the sidewinding and concertina modes of Crotalus cerastes, Nerodaia fasciata and Elaphe obsoleta. Journal of Experimental Biology 140: 1-33.

Jayne, B.C. 1988. Muscular mechanisms of snakes locomotion: an electromyographic study of lateral undulation of the Florida Banded Water Snake (Nerodia fasciata) and the yellow rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta). Journal of Morphology 197: 159-181.

Johnson, R.M. 1950. Mating activities between two subspecies of Elaphe obsoleta. Herpetologica 6(2): 42-44.

Justice, D.W. & R.E. Herrington. 1988. Life history notes: Elaphe guttata (Corn snake) - Reproduction. Herpetological Review 19(2): 35.

Karstad, L. 1967. Fatal poisoning of a fox snake (Elaphe vulpina) by feeding on a toad (Bufo americanus). Bulletin of the Wildlife Diseases Association 3(2): 73-74.

Kauffeld, C. 1966. The history of the corn snake, Elaphe guttata guttata in southern New Jersey. Bulletin of the New York Herp. Soc. 3(2): 6-9.

Kauffeld, C. F. 1960. The search for subocularis. Part 1. Bulletin of the Philadelphia Herp. Soc. 8(2): 13-19.

Kauffeld, C.F. 1960. The search for subocularis. Part 2. Bulletin of the Philadelphia Herp. Soc. 8(3): 9-15.

Keegan, H.L. 1944. An albino fox snake (Elaphe vulpina) from Iowa. Copeia 1944(2): 59.

Keller, L. 1988. A second albino black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) found in Illinois. Bulletin of the Chicago Herp. Society 23(7): 103.

Keogh, J.S. 1992. The fox snake (Elaphe vulpina): the "other" ratsnake. Vivarium 4(2): 23-24.

Kieve, R.J. 1979. Growth rate of a black rat snake (Elaphe o. obsoleta). Bulletin of the Philadelphia Herp. Soc. 27: 8.

Killebrew, F.C. 1984. Geographic distribution: Elaphe guttata emoryi (Great Plains Rat Snake). Herpetological Review 15(2): 52.

Kilpatrick, C.W., and M.A. Romano. 1982. Geographic distribution: Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta. Herpetological Review 13(1): 25.

Kivit, R. 1988. Breeding results: Elaphe guttata guttata (F3); Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata (2x). Litteratura Serpentium 8(2): 94-95.

Klein, J. & M.S. Loop. 1975. Headfirst prey ingestion by newborn Elaphe and Lampropeltis. Copeia 1975(2): 366.

Klemens, M.W. 1983. Geographic distribution: Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta (Black Rat Snake). Herpetological Review 14(1): 28.

Kraus, F., & G.W. Schuett. 1983. A melanistic Elaphe vulpina from Ohio. Herpetological Review 14(1): 10-11.

Kroll, J.C., D.G. Zahradnik, & R. Ford. 1973. Thermogenic cycles in Opheodrys vernalis and Elaphe obsoleta (Serpentes: Colubridae). Proc. West Virginia Adad. Sci. 45: 77-81.

Lamoreaux, W.E. 1980. Photo of Elaphe subocularis with an aberrant color pattern. Herpetological Review 11(4): 117.

Landreth, H.F. 1972. Physiological responses of Elaphe obsoleta and Pituophis melanoleucus to lowered ambient temperatures. Herpetologica 28: 376-380.

Langhammer, J. 1961. The vocal pouch: Report about Elaphe obsoleta. Bulletin of the Philadelphia Herp. Soc. 9(1): 7.

Lannutti, D.I., et al. 1996. Geographic distribution: Elaphe guttata emoryi. Herpetological Review 27(4): 212.

Laposata, M.M. 1999. Elaphe guttata guttata (Corn Snake). Agonistic interactions with potential prey. Herpetological Review 30(2): 100.

Lardie, R.L., et al. 1999. Geographic distribution: Elaphe obsoleta lindheimerii (Texas Rat Snake). Herpetological Review 30(2): 113.

Lawson, D.P., et al. 1993. Geographic distribution: Elaphe guttata. Herpetological Review 24(3): 109.

Lawson, R., & C.S. Lieb. 1990. Variation and hybridization in Elaphe bairdi (Serpentes: Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 24(3): 280-292.

Layne, J.N. 1957. Notes on a dormant pilot black snake. Copeia 1957(1): 49.

Lazcano, D., A. Kardon, & K. Peterson. 1992. Notes on Mexican herpetofauna. 1: Senticolis triaspis and Trimorphodon tau. Bulletin of the Chicago Herp. Soc. 27(1): 4.

Lazell, J.D., Jr. 1979. Geographic distribution: Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta. Herpetological Review 10(2): 60.

Leach, M.W., et al. 1991. Radiation therapy of a malignant chromatophoroma in a yellow rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata). Journal of Zoo Wildlife Medicine 22(2): 241-244.

Leonard, T. 1994. Geographic distribution: Elaphe emoryi (Great Plains Rat Snake). Herpetological Review 25(1): 34.

Lieb, C.S. 1971. A study of the variation in Elaphe obsoleta of Texas. Texas Academy of Sciences Coll. 26(1): 3-6.

Lillywhite, H.B., & R.A. Ackerman. 1984. Hydrostatic pressure, shell compliance and permeability to water vapor in flexible-shelled eggs of the colubrid snake Elaphe obsoleta. Persp. Vert. Sci. 3: 121-135.

Linden, M. van de. 1986. Breeding results: Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata. Litteratura Serpentium 6(4): 155.

Liner, E.A. 1997. Natural history notes: Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri (Texas Rat Snake) - Prey. Herpetological Review 28(2): 90.

Liner, E.A., A.H. Chaney, & R.M. Johnson. 1982. Geographic distribution: Elaphe subocularis (Trans-Pecos Rat Snake). Herpetological Review 13(2): 52-53.

Littleford, R.A., & W.F. Keller. 1946. Observations on captive pilot snakes and common water snakes. Copeia 1946(3): 160-167.

Lokke, J. 1988. Observations on the habitat, periods of activity and reproductive biology in Elaphe guttata emoryi, the great plains rat snake, in Nebraska. Kansas Herp. Soc. Newsletter (74): 14-19.

Lynch, J.D. 1966. Communal egg laying in the pilot blacksnake, Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta. Herpetologica 22(4): 305.

Maas, M.F.P.M. 1987. Surgical removal of eggs in an egg-bound albino corn snake (Elaphe guttata guttata) - a case report. Litteratura Serpentium 7(5): 206-214.

MacCoy, C.V. 1930. Records of the pilot black snake in New England. Bulletin of the Boston Society of Natural History (57): 21-22.

MacMahon, J.A. 1957. Observation on mating in the corn snake, Elaphe guttata guttata. Copeia 1957(3): 232.

Malone, J.H., and T.J. Williams. 1999. Geographic Distribution: Elaphe guttata (Corn Snake). Herpetological Review 30(1): 53.

Marion, K.R. 1980. One-egg twins in a snake, Elaphe guttata guttata. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sciences 83: 98-100.

Markezich, A. 1962. Ophiophagy in western fox snake, Elaphe v. vulpina. Bulletin of the Philadelphia Herpetological Society 10(4): 5.

Marle, R. van. 1986. Breeding results: Elaphe guttata guttata. Litteratura Serpentium 6(2): 75-76.

Mattlin, R.H. 1948. Observations on the eggs and young of the Eastern fox snake. Herpetologica 4(3): 115-116.

McAllister, C.T. 1987. Geographic distribution: Elaphe guttata emoryi (Great Plains Rat Snake). Herpetological Review 18(1): 20.

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