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Envenomation by Rear-fanged and "Harmless" Snakes: Bibliography

Aitchison, J.M. 1990. Boomslang bite - diagnosis and management. South African Medical Journal 78: 39-42.

Akimoto, R., et al. 1991. A case of defibrination syndrome due to Japanese colubrid snake, yamakagashi (Rhabdophis t. tigrinus) bite, treated with antivenom. The Snake 23(1): 36-39.

Anton, T.G. 1994. Observations of predatory behavior in the Regal Ringneck Snake (Diadophis punctatus regalis) under captive conditions. Bull. Chicago herp. Soc. 29(5): 95.

Assakura, M. T., M. G. Salomao, et al. (992. Hemorrhagic, fibrinogenolytic and edema-forming activities of the venom of the colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii (green snake). Toxicon 30(4): 427-38.

Atkinson, P.M., B.A. Bradlow, J.A. White, H.B.W. Greig, and M. Gaillard. 1980. Clinical features of twig snake (Thelatornis capensis) envenomation. South African Medical Journal 58: 1007-1010.

Bedry, R., et al. 1998. Is the saliva of the european whip snake (Coluber viridiflavus) neurotoxic? Toxicon 36(12): 1729-1730.

Bragg, A.N. 1960. Is Heterodon venomous? Herpetologica 16: 121-124.

Broaders, M., and M. F. Ryan. 1997. Enzymatic properties of the Duvenoy's secretion of Blanding's tree snake (Boiga blandingi) and of the mangrove snake (Boiga dendropila). Toxicon 35(7): 1143-1148.

Broadley, D.G. 1957. Fatalities from the bites of Dispholidus and Thelotornis and personal case history. J. Herp. Assoc. Rhodesia 1: 5.

Burchfield, P.M. 1993. An unusual dietary inclusion for the cat-eyed snake, Leptodeira septentrionalis septentrionalis. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 28(12): 266-267

Burger, W.I. 1975. A case of mild envenomation by the mangrove snake, Boiga dendrophilia. Snake 7: 99-100.

Cable, D., W. McGehee, et al. 1984. Prolonged defibrination after a bite from a 'nonvenomous' snake. J. Amer. Med. Ass. 251(7): 925-6.

Chiszar, D., et al. 1992. Liquid and dry venom yields from brown tree snakes Boiga irregularis Merrem. pp. 11-13. in P.D. and J.L. Strimple (eds.), Contributions in Herpetology. Greater Cincinnati Herpetological Society, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Cook, D.G. 1984. A case of envenomation by the neotropical colurid snake, Stenorrhina freminvillei. Toxicon 22(5): 823-827.

Cousin, X., and C. Bon. 1997. [Acetylcholinesterase from snake venoms.] C. R. Seances Soc. Biol. Fil. 191(3): 381-400.

Cowles, R.B., and C.M. Bogert. 1935. Observations on the California lyre snake, Trimorphodon vandenburghi, Klauber, with notes on the effectiveness of its venom. Copeia 1935: 80.

Cox, Merle J. Serious effects from the bite of the red cat-eye snake, Boiga nigriceps. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 23(10): 162.

de Araujo, M.E., and A.C. dos Santos. 1997. Cases of human envenoming caused by Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 30(6): 517-519.

De Lisle, H.F. 1984. Boiga cyanea (Green Cat-eye Snake): Envenomation. Herpetological Review 15(4): 112.

de Lema, T. 1978. Relato de um envenenamento por uma cobra nao venenosa. Natur. Rev. 4: 62-63.

DeLisle, H.F. 1982. Venomous colubrid snakes. Bull. Chic. Herpetol. Soc. 17: 1-17.

duToit, D. M. 1980. Boomslang (Dispholidus typus) bite. A case report and a review of diagnosis and management. S. Afr. Med. J. 57(13): 507-10.

Ferlan, I., et al. 1983. Preliminary studis on the venom of the colubrid snake Rhabdophis subminatus (red-necked keelback). Toxicon 21(4): 570-574.

Finley, R.B., D. Chiszar, and H.M. Smith. 1994. Field observations of salivary digestion of rodent tissue by the wandering garter snake, Thamnophis elegans vagrans. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 29: 5-6.

FitzSimons, D.C., and H.M. Smith. 1958. Another rear-fanged South African snake lethal to humans. Herpetologica 14: 198-202.

Fontana, M.D., et al.1996. Mode of action of Duvernoy's gland extracts from the colubrid Dryadophis bifossatus in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. Toxicon 34(10): 1187-1190.

Fritts, T.H., M.J. McCoid, and R.L. Haddock. 1990. Risks to infants on Guam from bites of the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygeine 42: 607-611.

Fritts, T.H., M.J. McCoid, and R.L. Haddock. 1994. Symptoms and circumstances associated with bites by the brown tree snake (Colubridae: Boiga irregularis) on Guam. Journal of Herpetology 28(1): 27-33.

Fry, Bryan G., et al. 2003. Analysis of Colubroidea snake venoms by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry: evolutionary and toxinological implications. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 17: 2047-2062.

Fukushima, H. 1986. Clinical aspects of bite by Yamakagashi, Rhabdophis tigrinus. Journal of the Kagoshima Society of International Medicine 18: 60-85.

Gerber, J. D. and H. P. Adendorff. (1980). [Boomslang (Dispholidus typus) bite: case report]. S. Afr. Med. J. 57(17): 710-1.

Glenn, J.L., et al. 1992. Analysis of the Duvernoy's gland and oral secretions of Hydrodynastes gigas. pp. 19-26. in P.D. and J.L. Strimple (eds.), Contributions in Herpetology. Greater Cincinnati Herpetological Society, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Gonzales, D. 1979. Bissverletzungen durch Malpolon monspessulanus. Salamandra 15: 266-268.

Grogan, W.L. 1974. Effects of accidental envenomation from the saliva of the Eastern hognose snake, Heterodon platyrhinos. Herpetologica 30: 248-249.

Harding, K.A. 1984. A brief review of colubrid snakebite. J. Assoc. Study Reptiles Amphib. 2: 65-72.

Hayes, W.K., and R. Hayes. 1985. Human envenomation from the bite of the eastern garter snake, Thamnophis s. sirtalis (Serpentes: Colubridae). Toxicon 23: 719-721.

Hayes, W.K., P. Lavin-Murcio, and K.V. Kardong. 1993. Delivery of Duvernoy's secretion into prey by the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis (Serpentes: Colubridae). Toxicon 31: 881-887.

Heleno, M.G., et al. 1997. Partial purification of a neurotoxic component from a duvernoy's gland extrct of the aglyphos colubrid Mastigodryas bifossatus. The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins 3(1)

Hiestand, P.C., and R.R. Hiestand. 1979. Dispholidus typus (boomslang) venom: purification and properties of the coagulant principle. Toxicon 17: 489-98.

Hill, R.E., and S. P. Mackessy. 1997. Venom yields from several species of colubrid snakes and differential effects of ketamine. Toxicon 35 (5): 671-678.

Hoffmann, J. J., M. Vijgen, et al. 1992. Haemostatic effects in vivo after snakebite by the red-necked keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus). Blood-Coagul-Fibrinolysis 3(4): 461-4.

Hornfeldt, C.S., and D.E. Keylar. 1987. Review of the toxicity of hognose snakes. Occasional Papers of the Minnesota Herpetological Society 1(3): 85-90.

Iddon, D. and R. D. Theakston 1986. Biological properties of the venom of the red-necked keel-back snake (Rhabdophis subminiatus). Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 80(3): 339-44.

Jansen, D.W. 1983. A possible function of the secretion of Duvernoy's gland. Copeia 1983: 262-264.

Jansen, D.W. 1987. The myonecrotic effect of Duvernoy's gland secretion of the snake Thamnophis elegans vagrans. Journal of Herpetology 21(1): 81-83.

Jansen, D.W., and R.C. Foehring. 1983. The mechanism of venom secretion from Duvernoy's gland of the snake Thamnophis sirtalis. Journal of Morphology 175: 271-277.

Johnson, J.D. 1988. Comments on the report of envenomation by the colubrid snake Stenorrhina freminvillei [letter]. Toxicon 26(6): 519-521.

Kapus, E.J. 1964. Anatomical evidence for Heterodon being poisonous. Herpetologica 20: 137-138.

Kardong, K.V. 1996. Snake toxins and venoms: an evolutionary perspective. Herpetologica 52(1): 36-46.

Kardong, K.V., and D.L. Luchtel. 1986. Ultrastructure of Duvernoy's gland from the wandering garter snake, Thamnophis elegans vagrans (Serpentes: Colubridae). Journal of Morphology 188: 1-13.

Kirchberg, J.S., and T.M. Davidson. 1991. Envenomation by the colubrid snake Atractaspis bibronii: a case report. Toxicon 29(3): 379-381.

Kochva, E. 1965. The development of the venom gland in the opisthoglyph snake Telscopus fallax with remarks on Thamnophis sirtalis (Colubridae, Reptilea). Copeia 1965: 147-154.

Kornal'ik, F. and E. T'Aborsk'a 1978. Procoagulant and defibrinating potency of the venom gland extract of Thelotornis kirtlandi. Thromb. Res. 12(6): 991-1001.

Kornal'ik, F., et al. 1978. Pharmacological and biochemical properties of a venom gland extract from the snake Thelotornis kirtlandi. Toxicon 16: 535-542.

Levinson, S.R., M.H. Evans, and F. Groves. 1976. A neurotoxic component of the venom from Blanding's tree snake (Boiga blandingi). Toxicon 14: 307-312.

Lopes, R.A., et al. 1987. The cephalic glands of Brazilian reptilia and amphibia. IV. Histology of labial, premaxillary, and Duvernoy's glands in the colubrid snake Oxyrhopus trigeminus. Gegenbaurs Morphol. Jahrb. 133(1): 91-97.

Mackay, N., et al. 1969. The venom of the boomslang (Dispholidus typus) in vivo and in vitro studies. Thromb. Diath. Haemorrh. 21: 234-244.

Mackessy, S.P. 1997. Colubrid snake venoms: composition, biological roles and evolution. Abstract. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Conference Proceedings, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Mamonov, G. 1977. Case report of envenomation by the mountain racer Coluber ravergieri in USSR. Snake. 9 (1):27-28.

Mandell, F., J. Bates, M.B. Mittleman, and J.W. Loy. 1980. Major coagulopathy and "nonpoisonous" snake bites. Pediatrics 65: 314-317.

Matell, G., et al. 1973. Consumption coagulopathy caused by a boomslang bite. Thromb. Res. 3: 173-182.

Mather, H.M., S. Mayne, and T.M. McMonagle. 1978. Severe envenomation from "harmless" pet snake. British Medical Journal 1: 1324-1325.

McAlister, W.H. 1963. Evidence of mild toxicity in the saliva of the hognose snake (Heterodon). Herpetologica 19: 132-137.

McKinstry, D.M. 1978. Evidence of toxic saliva in some colubrid snakes in the United States. Toxicon 16: 523-534.

McKinstry, D.M. 1983. Morphologic evidence of toxic saliva in colubrid snakes: a checklist of world genera. Herpetological Review 14: 12-15.

Mebs, D. 1968. Analysis of Leptodeira annulata venom. Herpetologica 24: 338.

Minton, S.A. 1976. A list of colubrid envenomations. Kentucky Herp. 7:4

Minton, S.A. 1979. Beware: nonpoisonous snakes. Clinical Toxicology 15: 259-265.

Minton, S.A. 1990. Venomous bites by nonvenomous snakes: an annotated bibliography of colubrid envenomation. Journal of Wildlife Medicine 1: 119-127.

Minton, S.A. 1996. Are there any nonvenomous snakes? An update on colubrid envenoming. Advances in Herpetoculture, Special publications of the International Herpetological Symposium, Inc. (1): 127-134.

Minton, S.A. 1998. Rear-fanged snakes and their venom. Abstract. 22nd Meeting, International Herpetological Symposium. Cincinnati, OH.

Minton, S.A., and S.A. Weinstein. 1987. Colubrid snake venoms: immunologic relationships, electrophoretic patterns. Copeia 1987(4): 993-1000.

Mittleman, M.B., and R.C. Goris. 1974. Envenomation from the bite of the Japanese colubrid snake Rhabdophis tigrinus (Boie). Herpetologica 30: 113-119.

Mittleman, M.B., and R.C. Goris. 1978. Death caused by the bite of the Japanese colubrid snake Rhabdophis tigrinus (Boie) (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 12(1): 109-111.

Mori, A. 1998. Prey-handling behavior of three species of Homalopsine snakes: features associated with piscivory and Duvernoy's glands. Journal of Herpetology 32(1): 40-50.

Mori, K., S. Hisa, et al. 1983. [A case of severe defibrination syndrome due to snake (Rhabdophis tigrinus) bite]. Rinsho. Ketsueki 24(3): 256-62.

Morris, M.A. 1985. Envenomation from the bite of Heterodon nasicus (Serpentes: Colubridae). Herpetologica 41(3): 361-363.

Neill, W. T. 1954. Evidence of venom in snakes of the genera Alsophis and Rhadinea. Copeia 1954:59-60.

Nichols, A. 1986. Envenomation by a bluestripe garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis. Herpetological Review 17(1): 6.

Nickerson, M.A., and R.W. Henderson. 1976. A case of envenomation by the South American colubrid Philodryas olfersi. Herpetologica 32: 197-198.

Nishioka, S.A., and P.V. Silveira. 1994. Philodryas patagoniensis bite and local envenoming. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 36(3): 279-281.

Ogawa, H., and Y. Sawai. 1986. Fatal bite of the yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus). Snake 18: 53-54.

Pinto, R.N., et al. 1991. Human envenomation by the South American opisthoglyph Clelia clelia plumbea (Wied). Toxicon 29(12): 1512-1516.

Prado-Franceschi, J., et al. 1998. Characterization of a myotoxin from the Duvernoy's gland secretion of the xenodontine colubrid Philodryas olfersii (green snake): effects on striated muscle and the neuromuscular junction. Toxicon 36(10): 1407-1421.

Prado-Franceschi, J., et al. 1996. The effects of Duvernoy's gland secretion from the xenodontine colubrid Philodryas olfersii on striated muscle and the neuromuscular junction: partial characterization of a neuromuscular fraction. Toxicon 34(4): 459-466.

Rodriguez-Robles, J.A. 1994. Are the Duvernoy's gland secretions of colubrid snakes venoms? Journal of Herpetology 28(3): 388-390.

Rodriguez-Robles, J.A., and R. Thomas. 1992. Venom function in the Puerto Rican racer, Alsophis portoricensis (Serpentes: Colubridae). Copeia 1992(1): 62-68.

Rosenberg, H.I., A. Bdolah, and E. Kochva. 1985. Lethal factors and enzymes in the secretion from Duvernoy's gland of three colubrid snakes. Journal of Experimental Zoology 233: 5-14.

Rosenberg, H. I., S. Kinamon, et al. 1992. The secretion of Duvernoy's gland of Malpolon monspessulanus induces haemorrhage in the lungs of mice. Toxicon 30(8): 920-4.

Russell, M.J., et al. 1999. Clelia clelia (Mussarana). Attempted predation. Herpetological Review 30(1): 43.

Saddler, M., and B. Paul. 1988. Vine snake envenomation. Cent. Afr. J. Med. 34: 31-33.

Sakai, A., et al. 1984. Study on the toxicity of venoms expressed from Duvernoy's gland of certain Asian coubrid snakes. The Snake 16: 16-20.

Senter, P. 1998. A bite from the rear-fanged colubrid Psammophis phillipsii. Herpetological Review 29(4): 216-217.

Smeets, R. E., P. G. Melman, et al. 1991. Severe coagulopathy after a bite from a 'harmless' snake (Rhabdophis subminiatus). J. Intern. Med 230(4): 351-4.

Taub, A. 1967. Comparative histological studies on Duvernoy's gland of colubrid snakes. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 138: 1-50.

Valls-Moraes, F., and T. De Lema. 1997. Envenomation by Phalotris trilineatus in Rio Grande Do Sul State, Brazil: a case report. The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins 3(1)

Vaughan, S.-T. and R. G. Lobetti 1995. Boomslang envenomation in a dog. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 66(4): 265-7.

Vest, D.K. 1981. Envenomation following the bite of a wandering garter snake Thamnophis elegans vagrans. Clinical Toxicology 18: 573-579.

Vest, D.K. 1981. The toxic secretion of the wandering garter snake, Thamnophis elegans vagrans. Toxicon 19: 831-839.

Vest, D.K. 1988. Some effects and properties of Duvernoy's gland secretions from Hypsiglena torquata texana (Texas night snake). Toxicon 26: 417-419.

Vest, D.K., S.P. MacKessy, and K.V. Kardong. 1991. The unique Duvernoy's secretion of the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis). Toxicon 29: 532-535.

Weinstein, S.A., and K.V. Kardong. 1994. Properties of Duvernoy's secretions from opisthoglyphous and aglyphous colubrid snakes: a critical review. Toxicon 32: 1161-1185.

Weinstein, S.A., and L.A. Smith. 1993. Chromatographic profiles and properties of Duvernoy's secretions from some boigine and dispholidine colubrids. Herpetologica 49(1): 78-94.

Weinstein, S.A., D. Chiszar, R.C. Bell, and L.A. Smith. 1991. Lethal potency and fractionation of Duvernoy's secretion from the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis. Toxicon 29: 401-408.

Weinstein, S.A., B.G. Stiles, M.J. McCoid, L.A. Smith, and K.V. Kardong. 1993. Variation and lethal potencies and acetylcholine receptor binding activity of Duvernoy's secretions from the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis. Journal of Natural Toxins 2: 187-198.

Whitaker, R. 1970. Slight reaction from bites of the rear-fanged snakes Boiga ceylonensis (Gunther) and Dryophis nasutus (Lacepede). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 67: 113.

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Yoshie, S., et al. 1988. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of nerves n the Duvernoy's gland of the Japanese colubrid snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus. Arch. Histol. Jpn. 51(5): 459-466.

Yoshie, S., et al. 1982. Fine structure of Duvernoy's gland of the Japanese colubrid snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus. Arch. Histol. Jpn. 45(4): 375-384.

Young, R.A. 1992. Effects of Duvernoy's gland secretions from the eastern hognose snake, Heterodon platyrhinos, on smooth muscle and neuromuscular junction. Toxicon 30: 775-779.

Young, R.A. 1996. In vitro activity of duvernoy's gland secretions from the African boomslang, Dispholidus typus, on nerve-muscle preparations. The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxis 2(1)

Young, R.A. and D.M. Miller. 1974. Comparative study of the venoms of Crotalidae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Boiginae. Trans. Ill. Acad. Sci. 67: 444-450.

Zalisko, E.J., and K.V. Kardong. 1992. Histology and histochemistry of the Duvernoy's gland of the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis. Copeia 1992: 791-799.

Zotz R.B., Mebs D., Hirche H. and Paar D. 1991. Hemostatic changes due to the venom gland extract of the red-necked keelback snake (Rhabdophis subminiatus). Toxicon 29(12):1501-1508.